Oral surgery is a branch of dental medicine that includes various surgical procedures in the oral cavity, in the area of teeth, bones and soft tissues, and is an indispensable part of dental medicine. All oral surgeries are completely painless due to the use of local anaesthesia or sedation. In our work we use the most modern microsurgical principles with the use of the latest technologies and the highest quality materials.
1. The most common oral - surgical procedures
- usual tooth extraction
- complicated tooth extraction
- extraction of the impacted tooth
- surgical removal of residual tooth roots
- levelling of the bone ridge
- bone augmentation
- sinus lift
- gum surgery
- reconstruction of aesthetic disorders of the oral cavity
- reconstruction of functional disorders of the oral cavity
2. Tooth extraction
Tooth extraction or extraction is a completely painless oral-surgical procedure during which the remnants of a tooth or an entire tooth are removed from the alveoli. The indication for tooth extraction is when, even after extensive methods of treatment, the tooth cannot be completely cured or when the tooth is severely damaged. Before extraction, it is necessary to make a 2D X-ray orthopantomographic image with the help of which our doctors primarily try to find a solution for endodontic dental treatment in order for the patient to keep the tooth in the jaw. If a tooth cannot be cured, the most common reasons for tooth extraction are:
- tooth root fracture
- advanced periodontitis
- advanced tooth decay by caries
- affected bone with granulomas and cysts around the root of the tooth
- teeth with poor ability to wear prosthetic work (crowns or bridges)
- lack of space in the oral cavity (usually wisdom teeth)
3. Apicotomy and cystectomy
Apicotomy and cystectomy are surgical procedures to remove the tip of the tooth root, along with the inflammatory process around it. The purpose of the apicotomy is to remove the pathological substrate, prevent the recurrence of the inflammatory condition and ultimately preserve the tooth. The procedure lasts up to an hour under local anaesthesia, is performed with a piezo instrument using a dental microscope and PRF membranes to ensure 100% success of the procedure. Recovery usually takes 2-3 days
4. Replacement of a lost tooth
After tooth extraction, dentists always recommend tooth or tooth replacement. The reason for this is the many problems that can occur due to a missing tooth or teeth, and the most common problems are:
- bone decay
- load on the masticatory muscles
- moving adjacent teeth and floating teeth from the opposite jaw due to a change in the bite
Missing teeth can be replaced in several ways. The most popular and most common way to replace missing teeth are dental implants, which are both the most functional and long-lasting solution. The remaining solutions are fixed prosthetics, i.e., bridges and crowns, and mobile prosthetics, i.e., dentures or dentures on implants.
5. Sinus lift - lifting the bottom of the sinus
Sinus lift is an oral-surgical procedure of lifting the bottom of the sinus (Schneider's membrane) for the purpose of bone augmentation with the help of augmentation to create conditions for placement of dental implants, immediately or after a period of osseointegration lasting from 6 to 8 months. In the lateral region of the upper jaw, there is often not enough bone height to place the implant due to the lowered maxillary sinus. With this procedure, we fill a part of the sinus cavity with bio-material that will ossify over time and thus obtain appropriate conditions for future implant placement. Since it is a lift of less than 10 millimetres, the physiological function of the sinuses and the health of the patient are not endangered.
There are two relevant and best-known sinus lifting techniques, and they are:
- small sinus lift
- large sinus lift
6. Small sinus lift - osteotomy technique
This technique is performed with an osteotomy, an instrument that is the same diameter as the implant, and the indication for the technique is when we have enough width to place the implant, but still lack 2 to 3 mm to the full length of the implant. Simultaneously with the lifting of the sinus membrane, before placing the implants, we fill the obtained space with appropriate augmentation material that will ossify in 3 to 4 months, and after that we can place the final prosthetic work on the implants.
7. Large sinus lift - lateral window technique
When the patient lacks a larger volume of bone, and the implant is planned to be installed in the near future, the procedure of raising the sinus floor with a lateral approach is performed. In this method, the sinus is opened from the lateral side, the sinus membrane is lifted, and the newly created space is filled with appropriate augmentation material. After the procedure, it is necessary to wait 6 to 8 months in order to achieve proper ossification for successful implant placement. After implant placement, it is necessary to wait 4 to 6 months for the implants to osseointegrate with the bone, after which we can proceed with the placement of the final work on the implants.